The Central African nation’s election drew accusations of fraud, but the elections commissioner declared that President Felix Tshisekedi had won.
The president of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Felix Tshisekedi, was declared the winner on Sunday of the December presidential vote in an election marred by severe logistical problems, protests and calls for its annulment from several opposition candidates.
Mr. Tshisekedi won more than 13 million votes, or 73 percent of the total ballots cast, said Denis Kadima, the head of the country’s electoral commission. Just over 18 million people, out of the 44 million registered to vote, cast ballots, Mr. Kadima said. The provisional results will now be sent to the nation’s Constitutional Court for confirmation.
The announcement was a critical moment in an election dogged by acute problems, some because of Congo’s vast size, and many fear the outcome could plunge the Central African nation into a new round of political turmoil and even violent unrest that has followed other electoral contests in recent years.
The results of the election matter not only to Congo’s 100 million people, who are suffering after decades of conflict and poor governance, but also to Western countries that consider Congo a critical part of their efforts to stem climate change and make a transition to green energy.
Congo produces 70 percent of the world’s cobalt, a key element in the electric vehicle industry, and has the second-largest rainforest, which absorbs vast amounts of planet-warming carbon dioxide. But for many in Congo, a decades-old, corruption-ridden system of political patronage is seen as the best way to distribute the spoils of that natural wealth — which may explain why the presidential race was so hotly contested.
On Dec. 23, five opposition leaders accused the country’s electoral commission of “massive fraud,” called on the head of the commission to resign and said the entire vote should be annulled. Four days later, opposition leaders held a demonstration in the capital, Kinshasa, to protest what they called a “sham” election. Security forces surrounded the offices of Martin Fayulu, one of the opposition candidates, and lobbed tear gas at protesters there, according to his spokesman and videos shared on social media.
Opposition leaders, including Moïse Katumbi, a business tycoon who is President Tshisekedi’s closest rival, condemned the actions of security forces and promised more marches nationwide.
Mr. Katumbi got 3 million votes, or about 18 percent of the ballots counted, the election commission said. Mr. Fayulu garnered just over 960,000 votes. Most of the other two dozen presidential candidates, including the Nobel Peace Prize winner Denis Mukwege, got less than one percent of the vote.
“The unfortunate competitors must accept the democratic game,” Mr. Kadima, the election chief, said on Sunday. “As a people, we must keep in mind the existence and stability of the Democratic Republic of Congo matters much more than an elected position,” he said, adding, “Let’s not weaken our country.”
But his comments are unlikely to assuage opposition leaders, who have warned of more protests.
“A point of no return has just been crossed,” Mr. Katumbi said on social media earlier this week. “This first march will be followed by other actions throughout the country. Cheating, fraud and lying will not pass.”
Mr. Tshisekedi, the incumbent and longstanding favorite to win, has repeatedly insisted that the election, which cost more than $1.25 billion to run, was fair and good enough given the challenges.
Logistical chaos marred the election long before the first votes were cast on Dec. 20. For weeks, election officials had rushed to get materials to 75,000 polling stations across a country the size of Western Europe and with few paved roads in the middle of the rainy season.
Yet just 70 percent of polling stations were open on Election Day, the election commission said, prompting it to extend the voting into a second day. Opposition leaders denounced the extension, claiming that it would facilitate fraud. It also drew criticism from the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, which enjoy broad public support across Congolese society and which run a network of electoral observers; the churches said the move violated the country’s electoral laws and was unconstitutional.
Voting even continued until Dec. 22 in remote areas including parts of Kwango and Kasai Provinces, the Rev. Rigobert Minani, a prominent Catholic campaigner, said in a text message.
The election commission acknowledged the delays but insisted that extending the vote did not undermine its legitimacy.
Mr. Tshisekedi, who came to power in 2019 in hotly disputed circumstances, had hoped this election would be an easy victory.
Unofficial tallies in the previous contest compiled by Catholic and other observers found that Mr. Fayulu, a former oil executive, had likely won three times as many votes as Mr. Tshisekedi. But after several weeks of political turmoil, Mr. Tshisekedi struck a power-sharing deal with the departing president, Joseph Kabila, who had ruled for 18 years.
That deal crumbled within a year, and since then Mr. Tshisekedi has effectively consolidated his power, gaining popular support by providing free primary education to millions of Congolese children. But he has not delivered on two key promises — to bring peace to eastern Congo, where conflict has raged since 1996, and to tackle the country’s notorious reputation for corruption.
Instead, political opponents charge, Mr. Tshisekedi and his extended family have acquired considerable wealth during his time in power.
The United States played a crucial role after Congo’s last election, in December 2018, when it blessed the controversial power-sharing deal between Mr. Tshisekedi and Mr. Kabila. This time, American officials have been at pains to stress that they are not taking sides.
In a statement on Dec. 22, the United States Embassy in Kinshasa noted the logistical problems with the voting and called on Congolese leaders to “exercise restraint” and to peacefully resolve any electoral disputes that may follow.
Without naming any candidate, Mr. Kadima, the election chief, on Sunday criticized candidates he said had used vandalism, intimidation, corruption and violence to cheat and win. The final results are now slated for early January, and once confirmed by the court, a presidential swearing-in is expected by the month’s end.
“We were tenacious,” Mr. Kadima said of the election process.
Emma Bubola contributed reporting from London.